HIV Cure Continues To Evade Doctors


Giving drugs within hours of HIV infection is not a cure, say doctors treating a baby in Milan, Italy.

The newborn infant cleared the virus from their bloodstream, but HIV re-emerged soon after antiretroviral treatment stopped.

Doctors had hoped rapid treatment would might prevent HIV becoming established in the body.

Experts said there was “still some way to go” before a cure was found.

Drug treatments have come a long way since HIV came to global attention in the 1980s and infection is no longer a death sentence.

However, antiretrovirals merely clear the virus from the bloodstream leaving reservoirs of HIV in other organs untouched.

The hope was that acting before the reservoirs formed would be an effective cure.

HIV baby

Doctors at the University of Milan and the Don Gnocchi Foundation in the city have reported a case, in the Lancet medical journal, of a baby born to a mother with HIV in 2009.

Drug treatment started shortly after birth and the virus rapidly disappeared from the bloodstream. HIV was undetectable at the age of three.

The doctors said: “In view of these results, and recent reports of apparent cure of HIV infection, and in agreement with the mother, we stopped antiretroviral therapy.”

For one week everything seemed fine, but in the second week, after treatment stopped, the virus had returned.

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system

Prof Mario Clerici, from the University of Milan, told the BBC News website: “Just a couple of hours after infection, the virus has already started seeding the organs and hides so therapy cannot eradicate HIV.

“You can treat patients, but you cannot cure them. Right now it is impossible.”

In July, a baby girl in the US born with HIV and believed cured after very early treatment was found to still harbour the virus.

Doctors said tests on the four-year-old child from Mississippi indicated she was no longer in remission.

She had appeared free of HIV as recently as March, without receiving treatment for nearly two years.

“A cure for HIV is still at ground zero,” said Prof Clerici.

Distant prospect

Commenting on the findings Prof Sanjaya Senanayake, from the Australian National University Medical School, said: “This case shows that undetectable HIV in the blood does not mean that the body is free from virus and that there is still some way to go before a cure is found.”

Only one person has been “cured” of HIV.

In 2007, Timothy Ray Brown received a bone marrow transplant from a donor with a rare genetic mutation that resists HIV.

He has shown no signs of infection for more than five years.

Gallagher, J.  (2014, October 2).  HIV cure continues to evade doctors.  Retrieved from

HIV’s Origins Trace to Kinshasa in 1920s

A new genetic history of HIV shows how the pandemic almost certainly took root in the 1920s in Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of Congo, researchers said Thursday.

Assisted by train transport and the sex trade, the virus that causes AIDS then spread across the continent and eventually the world, infecting some 75 million people and killing 36 million of them.

An international team of researchers reconstructed the genetic history of the HIV-1 group M pandemic, and found that the common ancestor of group M is “highly likely” to have emerged in Kinshasa around 1920.

While various strains of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have jumped from primates and apes to humans at least 13 times, only one such transmission event has led to a human pandemic.

And it did because it was aided by “a ‘perfect storm’ of factors, including urban growth, strong railway links during Belgian colonial rule, and changes to the sex trade, combined to see HIV emerge from Kinshasa and spread across the globe” between the 1920s and 1950s, said the study in the journal Science.

“For the first time we have analyzed all the available evidence using the latest phylogeographic techniques, which enable us to statistically estimate where a virus comes from,” said senior author Oliver Pybus of Oxford University’s Department of Zoology.

“This means we can say with a high degree of certainty where and when the HIV pandemic originated.”

A key factor in the pandemic’s spread was the use of trains as transport, which helped bring the virus from isolated pockets of people into the larger city, which was Kinshasa, among the best connected of all central African cities.

“Data from colonial archives tells us that by the end of 1940s over one million people were travelling through Kinshasa on the railways each year,” said Nuno Faria of Oxford University’s Department of Zoology, first author of the paper.

Then, looking at genetic data, scientists could see that HIV spread across what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly the Belgian Congo and Zaire) to other major cities, by the early 1950s.

These regional hubs were connected to southern and eastern African countries.

“We think it is likely that the social changes around the independence in 1960 saw the virus ‘break out’ from small groups of infected people to infect the wider population and eventually the world,” Faria said.

These social changes include sex workers who took on a large number of clients, coupled with “public health initiatives against other diseases that led to the unsafe use of needles (which) may have contributed to turning HIV into a full-blown epidemic,” the study said.

Campaigns to treat people with sexually transmitted diseases may have been carried out using needles that were not sterile, suggesting another route for HIV and co-infections with hepatitis C that are often seen in men in the DRC over 50.

HIV was first identified in 1981, and the AIDS epidemic ballooned for more than a decade until antiretroviral drugs were created. These long-term regimens have transformed HIV from a fatal disease into a chronic condition for many of those infected.

Researchers said further study is needed to understand the different social factors that enabled the virus to spread the way it did.

Santini, J.  (2014, October 3). HIV’s origins traced to Kinshasa in 1920s.  Retrieved from

CN health facilities using age-related STD screenings (from the Cherokee Phoenix)

When patients go to Cherokee Nation health facilities for sexually transmitted disease screenings, their ages may determine if they are screened for Hepatitis C, HIV, Chlamydia or other sexually transmitted diseases.

For example, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control recently recommended testing everyone born between 1945-65 for Hepatitis C because the majority of people with Hepatitis C were born in that period.

CN Infectious Disease Director Dr. Jorge Mera said CN health officials hope to broaden screenings to help patients born within that time period as well as patients who have risk factors. He said it’s good to get screened if a patient received a blood transfusion before 1982, received unprofessional tattoos or used intravenous or intranasal drugs.

“By screening them just because they were born in a certain time period makes it a lot easier for the screening process to take place and we can pick up a lot of people who have an infection that they don’t know about,” he said.

Hepatitis C is considered a silent killer because many affected by it do not notice symptoms for about 20-30 years. It can lead to cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer. About 30-40 percent of patients who live with the infection for 20 years will develop cirrhosis. However, the Food and Drug Administration recently approved new medications that can achieve 90 percent cure rates for most of these patients.

“This is a major game changer in the practice of medicine because now we have a chronic disease that we can potentially cure (in the majority of infected people),” Mera said.

In 2006, the CDC recommended patients between the ages of 13 and 64 be screened for HIV, which if not treated will attack the immune system causing deficiency. When the immune system is attacked, patients can develop AIDS, which causes infections or tumors.

“Although we do not have a cure (for HIV) we have excellent treatments that we can give the patients and prevent them from developing AIDS so we can have an AIDS-free society,” Mera said.

The CDC recommends females between the ages 16 and 25 to take a simple urine test for Chlamydia because the disease can cause sterility. Fifty percent of the infected women do not show symptoms. Chlamydia can cause urinary discomfort, pelvic discomfort, fever and pelvic pain.

Mera said Chlamydia is easy to treat, sometimes requiring only antibiotics.

“I encourage them to please request to be tested because that way everybody will be tested and we’ll find everybody and treat everybody and we’ll have a healthier and happier community,” he said.

The Hepatitis C and HIV tests are both blood tests. Providers encourage patients to test for these when they are getting blood drawn for other reasons. They can include the test on the same blood draw.

Citizens can request these screenings at CN clinics and the W.W. Hastings Hospital in Tahlequah. Screenings and results are private. If patients are positive for any STD they will be contacted directly. If negative they can find out at their next hospital visit. In Oklahoma, minors who take part in screenings can do so without their parents knowing.

Mera said many patients do not know these screenings are available, and in some cases, are afraid to take them.

“This would be like encouraging females to come get their mammogram when they have the age for it or come and get their pap smear,” he said. “Females have been educated on this and they do these tests as a part of their health evaluation. I would like them to incorporate this as a part of their health evaluation. I’m trying to empower them with education to please request to be tested for HIV, Hepatitis C or Chlamydia.”

Mera said Chlamydia screenings have about a 25 percent screening rate for all eligible females.  He added that in November CN health facilities began age-targeted screenings for Hepatitis C.

HIVs screening at CN health facilities started in 2012 with only 3 percent of eligible CN citizens being screened. A year later, it’s 17 percent.

“That’s means 17 out of 100 citizens that should have been screened were screened,” Mera said. “The improvement has been tremendous. We still have 83 percent of the population to screen and we need them to come and request the screening test.”

UNAIDS: Decline Seen In New HIV Infections

The HIV/AIDS pandemic has been halted and is beginning to reverse, at least by some measures, according to a report from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS).

New HIV infections in 2012 were down slightly from 2011 and by 33% since 2001, while AIDS-related deaths continued to fall from their peak in 2005, the report said.

And about 9.7 million people in low and middle-income countries are now on antiretroviral medication, up by about 20% since 2011, the report said.

The news is “all really good,” commented Carlos del Rio, MD, of Emory University in Atlanta, and a spokesman for the HIV Medicine Association.

“The massive investments in prevention and in care and treatment are beginning to pay off,” he told MedPage Today.

Del Rio cautioned against too much optimism. “My concern is that people will say we’ve won the battle and we can move on,” he said.

But if global investment to combat the pandemic, by such programs as the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), is cut markedly, Del Rio said, the progress “will immediately reverse.”

Indeed, the report, released as the UN General Assembly is set this week to debate progress on its so-called Millennium Development Goals, also notes that funding, in real terms, is flat.

Total resources available in 2012 were $18.9 billion (U.S.), up only slightly from $17.1 billion a year earlier.

But many countries have increased their domestic financial outlays for HIV/AIDS, although the low- and middle-income countries most affected by the pandemic remain in need of international help, the report says.

The key findings, based on data from 171 of the 193 member UN states, are:

  • There were 2.3 million new HIV infections worldwide, down from 2.5 million in 2011 and down 33% from the 3.4 million in 2001.
  • The drop in new infections was observed in both adults and children but was more marked in children — 260 000 in 2012, down 52% from the 550,000 in 2001.
  • The number of AIDS-related deaths was 1.6 million in 2012, down slightly from 1.7 million in 2011 and from the 2005 peak of 2.3 million.
  • Tuberculosis-related deaths in people living with HIV have fallen by 36% since 2004, although TB still remains the leading killer of people with HIV.

The approximately 9.7 million people living with HIV who had access to antiretroviral therapy represent 61% of people eligible for treatment under the 2010 WHO guidelines and 34% of those eligible under the 2013 WHO guidelines, which expanded access because of mounting evidence that treatment prevents transmission.

The 2015 UN development goals call for 50% reductions in both sexual and drug-related HIV transmission, eliminating new HIV infections among children, reaching 15 million people with HIV treatment, and mobilizing $22 billion to $24 billion a year for HIV programs.

The UNAIDS report notes that 26 states saw the annual number of new HIV infections among adults and adolescents fall by 50% or more between 2001 and 2012, but many others have not had similar success, underscoring “the importance of intensifying prevention efforts.”

But there is no evidence to suggest that new infections among injection drugs users are declining, meaning the “world is not on track” to meet the target of a 50% cut in transmission, the report said.

On the other hand, the world is “within reach” of getting therapy to 15 million people who need it by 2015, the report said.

What is Chlamydia??

What is chlamydia??

Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, which can damage a woman’s reproductive organs. Even though symptoms of chlamydia are usually mild or absent, serious complications that cause irreversible damage, including infertility, can occur “silently” before a woman ever recognizes a problem. Chlamydia also can cause discharge from the penis of an infected man.

How common is chlamydia?

Chlamydia is the most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States. In 2004, 929,462 chlamydial infections were reported to CDC from 50 states and the District of Columbia. Under-reporting is substantial because most people with chlamydia are not aware of their infections and do not seek testing. Also, testing is not often done if patients are treated for their symptoms. An estimated 2.8 million Americans are infected with chlamydia each year. Women are frequently re-infected if their sex partners are not treated.

How do people get chlamydia?

Chlamydia can be transmitted during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Chlamydia can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby during vaginal childbirth.

Any sexually active person can be infected with chlamydia. The greater the number of sex partners, the greater the risk of infection. Because the cervix (opening to the uterus) of teenage girls and young women is not fully matured, they are at particularly high risk for infection if sexually active. Since chlamydia can be transmitted by oral or anal sex, men who have sex with men are also at risk for chlamydial infection.

What are the symptoms of chlamydia?

Chlamydia is known as a “silent” disease because about three quarters of infected women and about half of infected men have no symptoms. If symptoms do occur, they usually appear within 1 to 3 weeks after exposure.

In women, the bacteria initially infect the cervix and the urethra (urine canal). Women who have symptoms might have an abnormal vaginal discharge or a burning sensation when urinating. When the infection spreads from the cervix to the fallopian tubes (tubes that carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus), some women still have no signs or symptoms; others have lower abdominal pain, low back pain, nausea, fever, pain during intercourse, or bleeding between menstrual periods. Chlamydial infection of the cervix can spread to the rectum.

Men with signs or symptoms might have a discharge from their penis or a burning sensation when urinating. Men might also have burning and itching around the opening of the penis. Pain and swelling in the testicles are uncommon.

Men or women who have receptive anal intercourse may acquire chlamydial infection in the rectum, which can cause rectal pain, discharge, or bleeding. Chlamydia can also be found in the throats of women and men having oral sex with an infected partner.

What complications can result from untreated chlamydia?

If untreated, chlamydial infections can progress to serious reproductive and other health problems with both short-term and long-term consequences. Like the disease itself, the damage that chlamydia causes is often “silent.”

In women, untreated infection can spread into the uterus or fallopian tubes and cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). This happens in up to 40 percent of women with untreated chlamydia. PID can cause permanent damage to the fallopian tubes, uterus, and surrounding tissues. The damage can lead to chronic pelvic pain, infertility, and potentially fatal ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy outside the uterus). Women infected with chlamydia are up to five times more likely to become infected with HIV, if exposed.

To help prevent the serious consequences of chlamydia, screening at least annually for chlamydia is recommended for all sexually active women age 25 years and younger. An annual screening test also is recommended for older women with risk factors for chlamydia (a new sex partner or multiple sex partners). All pregnant women should have a screening test for chlamydia.

Complications among men are rare. Infection sometimes spreads to the epididymis (a tube that carries sperm from the testis), causing pain, fever, and, rarely, sterility.

Rarely, genital chlamydial infection can cause arthritis that can be accompanied by skin lesions and inflammation of the eye and urethra (Reiter’s syndrome).

How does chlamydia affect a pregnant woman and her baby?

In pregnant women, there is some evidence that untreated chlamydial infections can lead to premature delivery. Babies who are born to infected mothers can get chlamydial infections in their eyes and respiratory tracts. Chlamydia is a leading cause of early infant pneumonia and conjunctivitis (pink eye) in newborns.

How is chlamydia diagnosed?

There are laboratory tests to diagnose chlamydia. Some can be performed on urine, other tests require that a specimen be collected from a site such as the penis or cervix.

What is the treatment for chlamydia?

Chlamydia can be easily treated and cured with antibiotics. A single dose of azithromycin or one week of doxycycline (twice daily) are the most commonly used treatments. HIV-positive persons with chlamydia should receive the same treatment as those who are HIV negative.

All sex partners should be evaluated, tested, and treated. Persons with chlamydia should abstain from sexual intercourse until they and their sex partners have completed treatment, otherwise re-infection is possible.

Women whose sex partners have not been appropriately treated are at high risk for re-infection. Having multiple infections increases a woman’s risk of serious reproductive health complications, including infertility. Retesting should be considered for women, especially adolescents, three to four months after treatment. This is especially true if a woman does not know if her sex partner received treatment.

How can chlamydia be prevented?

The surest way to avoid transmission of sexually transmitted diseases is to abstain from sexual contact, or to be in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and is known to be uninfected.

Latex male condoms, when used consistently and correctly, can reduce the risk of transmission of chlamydia.

Chlamydia screening is recommended annually for all sexually active women 25 years of age and younger. An annual screening test also is recommended for older women with risk factors for chlamydia (a new sex partner or multiple sex partners). All pregnant women should have a screening test for chlamydia.

Any genital symptoms such as discharge or burning during urination or unusual sore or rash should be a signal to stop having sex and to consult a health care provider immediately. If a person has been treated for chlamydia (or any other STD), he or she should notify all recent sex partners so they can see a health care provider and be treated. This will reduce the risk that the sex partners will develop serious complications from chlamydia and will also reduce the person’s risk of becoming re-infected. The person and all of his or her sex partners must avoid sex until they have completed their treatment for chlamydia.

Where can I get more information?

STD information and referrals to STD Clinics
1-800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636)
TTY: 1-888-232-6348
In English, en Español

CDC National Prevention Information Network (NPIN)
P.O. Box 6003
Rockville, MD 20849-6003
1-888-282-7681 Fax
1-800-243-7012 TTY

American Social Health Association (ASHA)
P. O. Box 13827
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3827


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines 2002. MMWR 2002;51(no. RR-6).

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2004. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, September 2005.

Public Health Investigation of Tulsa Dental Practice

The Tulsa Health Department and the Oklahoma State Department of Health announced yesterday they are notifying approximately 7,000 patients of a Tulsa dental practice about potential exposure to blood borne viruses following a joint investigation with the Oklahoma Board of Dentistry. The investigation revealed practices that could have exposed patients to infectious material.

Patients who had procedures at Dr. W. Scott Harrington’s dental practice, located at 2111 S. Atlanta Place in Tulsa or at 12806 E. 86th Place N. in Owasso, Oklahoma, will begin to receive letters in the mail. The notification includes patients who have visited Dr. Harrington since 2007 and recommends they be tested for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV.

The Tulsa Health Department has set up a clinic to draw your blood for the tests at the North Regional Health and Wellness Center (NRHC) located at 5635 N. Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd.  Services will be provided on a walk-in basis starting on Monday, April 1st from 8:00 AM to 6:00 PM.  Please bring this letter with you to the clinic.  Your test results will be directly shared with you in a timely manner and will be kept confidential.


The Oklahoma City-County Health Department is also offering extended hours and free testing for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV, as patients of the Dr. W. Scott Harrington dental practice may now be living in Oklahoma County.

Extended hours for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV testing:

  • Friday March 29th from 1:00pm – 5:00pm
  • Saturday March 30th from 10:00am – 2:00pm
  • April 1st-April 5 extended hours 7:00am-6pm

All testing for patients who were seen by Dr. W. Scott Harrington will be done free of charge at the Oklahoma City County Health Department’s Main location at 921 NE 23rd, OKC, OK 73105. Services will be provided on a walk-in basis. In addition, the health department has set up a hotline at (405) 425-4437 for people with questions about hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or HIV.

Hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV are serious medical conditions and infected patients may not have outward symptoms of the disease for many years. As a precaution, and in order to take appropriate steps to protect their health, it is important for these patients to get tested. It should be noted that transmission in this type of occupational setting is rare.

Oklahoma State HIV/AIDS Education Standards

Chalkboard - Sex

One of the things that I am asked most often by school administrators is, “What does the Oklahoma state law require in regards to HIV/AIDS education in our school?”.
Many people are shocked to find out that Oklahoma was the very first state in the US to adopt a law requiring HIV Prevention Education be taught in schools. This law was adopted in 1987 and states:

§70 11 103.3. AIDS prevention education Curriculum and materials Inspection by parents and guardians.

A. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention education shall be taught in the public schools of this state. AIDS prevention education shall be limited to the discussion of the disease AIDS and its spread and prevention. Students shall receive such education:
1. at the option of the local school district, a minimum of once during the period from grade five through grade six;
2. a minimum of once during the period from grade seven through grade nine; and 3. a minimum of once during the period from grade ten through grade twelve.

B. The State Department of Education shall develop curriculum and materials for AIDS prevention education in conjunction with the State Department of Health. A school district may also develop its own AIDS prevention education curriculum and materials. Any curriculum and materials developed for use in the public schools shall be approved for medical accuracy by the State Department of Health. A school district may use any curriculum and materials that have been developed and approved, pursuant to this subsection.

C. School districts shall make the curriculum and materials that will be used to teach AIDS prevention education available for inspection by the parents and guardians of the students that will be involved with the curriculum and materials. Furthermore, the curriculum must be limited in time frame to deal only with factual medical information for AIDS prevention. The school districts, at least one (1) month prior to teaching AIDS prevention education in any classroom, shall conduct for the parents and guardians of the students involved during weekend and evening hours at least one presentation concerning the curriculum and materials that will be used for such education. No student shall be required to participate in AIDS prevention education if a parent or guardian of the student objects in writing to such participation.

D. AIDS prevention education shall specifically teach students that:
1. engaging in homosexual activity, promiscuous sexual activity, intravenous drug use or contact with contaminated blood products is now known to be primarily responsible for contact with the AIDS virus;
2. avoiding the activities specified in paragraph 1 of this subsection is the only method of preventing the spread of the virus;
3. sexual intercourse, with or without condoms, with any person testing positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies, or any other person infected with HIV, places that individual in a high risk category for developing AIDS.

E. The program of AIDS prevention education shall teach that abstinence from sexual activity is the only certain means for the prevention of the spread or contraction of the AIDS virus through sexual contact. It shall also teach that artificial means of birth control are not a certain means of preventing the spread of the AIDS virus and reliance on such methods puts a person at risk for exposure to the disease.

F. The State Department of Health and the State Department of Education shall update AIDS education curriculum material as newly discovered medical facts make it necessary.
Added by Laws 1987, c. 46, § 1, operative July 1, 1987.

The state of Oklahoma is a passive permission state which means that a letter must be sent home to the students stating that if parents do not wish for their child to participate in this class then they must sign the form and return it to the school. Otherwise, if a student does not return the signed form, they will be in the class.

Sexual education itself is not required to be taught in Oklahoma schools. However, if it is taught, there is also a law for that which was adopted in 1995 and it states:

§70-11-105.1. Sex education – Approval of curriculum and materials.

A. All curriculum and materials including supplementary materials which will be used to teach or will be used for or in connection with a sex education class or program which is designed for the exclusive purpose of discussing sexual behavior or attitudes, or any test, survey or questionnaire whose primary purpose is to elicit responses on sexual behavior or attitudes shall be available through the superintendent or a designee of the school district for inspection by parents and guardians of the student who will be involved with the class, program or test, survey or questionnaire. Such curriculum, materials, classes, programs, tests, surveys or questionnaires shall have as one of its primary purposes the teaching of or informing students about the practice of abstinence. The superintendent or a designee of the school district shall provide prior written notification to the parents or guardians of the students involved of their right to inspect the curriculum and material and of their obligation to notify the school in writing if they do not want their child to participate in the class, program, test, survey or questionnaire. Each local board of education shall determine the means of providing written notification to the parents and guardian which will ensure effective notice in an efficient and appropriate manner. No student shall be required to participate in a sex education class or program which discusses sexual behavior or attitudes if a parent or guardian of the student objects in writing to such participation. If the type of program referred to in this section is a part of or is taught during a credit course, a student may be required to enroll in the course but shall not be required to receive instruction in or participate in the program if a parent or guardian objects in writing.

B. The superintendent or a designee of a school district in which sex education is taught or a program is offered which is designed for the exclusive purpose of discussing sexual behavior or attitudes shall approve all curriculum and materials which will be used for such education and any test, survey or questionnaire whose primary purpose is to elicit responses on sexual behavior or attitudes used in the school prior to their use in the classroom or school. The teacher involved in the class, program, testing or survey shall submit the curriculum, materials, tests or surveys to the superintendent or a designee for approval prior to their use in the classroom or school. This section shall not apply to those students enrolled in classes, programs, testings or surveys offered through an alternative education program.
Added by Laws 1995, c. 298, § 1, eff. Nov. 1, 1995.

This law basically is just saying that anything you teach regarding sex must be accessible for the parents to review and that all curriculum must be approved by the superintendent or a designee. Plain and simple.
In response to these laws, the Oklahoma State Department of Education has also developed content standards that must be met when teaching HIV/AIDS Prevention.

These standards state:

The curriculum adopted by the State Board of Education for implementation by the beginning of the 1993-94 school year shall be thoroughly reviewed by the State Board every three (3) years, and the State Board shall implement any revisions in such curriculum deemed necessary to achieve further improvements in the quality of education for the students of this state. (70 O.S. Section 11-103.6a)
Adopted by the State Board of Education, August 22, 2002.


Health/Safety Education Overview

The Priority Academic Student Skills (PASS) for Health and Safety represent standards that describe what students should know concerning health and safety. The standards are categorized under the following: HEALTH and SAFETY LITERACY, RESPONSIBLE HEALTH AND SAFETY BEHAVIOR, AND HEALTH AND SAFETY ADVOCACY.


School districts shall make the curriculum and materials that will be used to teach AIDS prevention education available for inspection by the parents and guardians of the students that will be involved with the curriculum and materials. Furthermore, the curriculum must be limited in time frame to deal only with factual medical information for AIDS prevention. The school districts, at least one (1) month prior to teaching AIDS prevention education in any classroom, shall conduct for the parents and guardians of the students involved during weekend and evening hours at least one presentation concerning the curriculum and materials that will be used for such education. No student shall be required to participate in AIDS prevention education if a parent or guardian of the student objects in writing to such participation. 70 O.S. § 11-103.3

STANDARD – Grades 7 – 12

1. Investigate and examine current information about HIV/AIDS in order to differentiate related facts, opinions, and myths.
2. Examine and identify the importance of sexual abstinence in adolescent relationships.
3. Demonstrate refusal skills (saying “no”), negotiation skills and peer resistance skills related to sexual health.
4. Analyze the transmission and methods of prevention for sexually transmitted disease (STD) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).
5. Identify risk behaviors and situations involving possible exposure to HIV.
6. Examine the relationships between injecting drug use (IDU) and contact with contaminated blood products and the transmission of HIV.
7. Analyze the efficiency of artificial means of birth control in preventing the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.

Oklahoma is deemed an “Abstinence Plus” state. This term means that, while abstinence is stressed, birth control is also included in the program as it pertains to HIV/AIDS Prevention. Everything that the state requires to be taught is centered around HIV/AIDS Prevention – not pregnancy prevention. Therefore, the main means of birth control discussed are condoms.